Explaining Thinking: Once students have become more accountable for sharing their thinking with each other and with the whole group, Patty Ferrant is then able to make connections between students’ ideas while maintaining their positive dispositions for learning.

She challenges them to explain their thinking aloud, repeating what they said and asking them to defend their reasoning.

**CONSIDER:**

How can you tell when your students are ready for increased rigor in your questioning?

These videos are discussed in the Inside Mathematics guide "Making Sense of One’s Own and Others’ Learning, Patty Ferrant, 8th Grade," one of 10 practice-focused guides on building classroom climates for mathematical learning.

The videos document key mathematical practices observed in teacher Patty Ferrant's 8th-grade classroom over the course of a school year. In the guide (available as a PDF or an iBook download), you can explore extended narratives and questions for reflection around "making sense of one’s own and others’ learning."

Day 2: Modeling and engaging students in sense-making [Understanding and Reading Problems]

Day 2: Making sense in partner talk [Understanding and Reading Problems]

Day 5: Students identify needs and norms for constructive partner and group work [Explaining Thinking]

Day 5: Sharing understanding (or lack thereof) with partner talk [Understanding and Reading Problems]

Day 5: Partner share for describing and justifying strategies [Finding Evidence, Justifying Strategies]

Day 19: Building from students’ answers to strategic understandings [Explaining Thinking]

Day 19: Building on to others’ ideas [Explaining Thinking]

Day 19: Defending and proving effective strategies [Finding Evidence, Justifying Strategies]

Day 118: Students present, defend, and critique their own and others’ evidence and strategies [Finding Evidence, Justifying Strategies]

Day 158: Partner engagement in listening and sharing thinking [Explaining Thinking]